With the rapid rise of economic development and packaging industry, also a significant increase in packaging waste, if not treated in time, it will seriously pollute the environment, over time forming a vicious trend of non-governance. Currently recycling and reuse of packaging waste has become imperative States Environmental Protection, as well as measures to control the primary global environmental pollution. This paper recycling and reuse technology to make some elaboration of plastic packaging waste.
Recycling of packaging waste packaging waste for recycling can save energy, save resources, reduce environmental pollution, and reduce pressure on landfill and incineration. According to incomplete estimated that China's annual packaging waste is about 16 million tons, accounting for 25% of urban waste volume. In the long run will lead to serious environmental pollution, and the enormous waste of resources. China's annual economic losses caused by solid waste and can be used without the use of waste resources sling value of 30 billion yuan.
Plastic packaging materials, for example. China's annual plastic packaging products reached 300 million tons, and its waste recycling can save a lot of energy and resources. Such as the use of plastic waste containers made of plastic parts and packaging, and pure resin plastic parts and packaging containers compared to savings of 85 to 96% of the energy needed; such as the use of recycled plastic waste incineration Although you can save energy, but recycling law in comparison, which can save more energy, such as: 45.4 kg of sling-density polyethylene combustion is 19,000 joules, but recycling can save 38,000 joules of energy.
Recycling of packaging waste and recycling materials are generally divided into two major categories of thermal energy recovery. Domestic packaging waste recycling to material recovery based.
Materials recovery technology is through sorting (by the type of packaging material) of packaging waste, the use of appropriate processing techniques, so as to reproduce the same for the new material. On renewable technology, a variety of different types of packaging waste material generally can be recycled, but the economics of recycled materials there is a big difference. Where paper, glass and metal recycling economy is more reasonable, plastic is not ideal.
Heat recovery is mixed into combustible packaging waste incinerator combustion heat produced during combustion as an energy source for power generation and heating. Generally do not need to pre-heat recovery mixed packaging waste strict separation, the results of its recycling of solid waste volume and weight of children is greatly reduced, it is a convenient method of packaging waste disposal. But it is worth mentioning that the flue gas produced during the recovery to be used to deal with reliable technical measures to prevent secondary pollution of the atmosphere.
The type and intended use of plastic packaging materials, plastic packaging waste recycling and treatment of children Situation plastic packaging materials accounted for around 26% of the total plastic production. Plastic packaging varieties, forming many kinds of both a variety of excellent properties such as resistance is divided into normal temperature, low temperature resistant, temperature resistant sling, stretch-resistant, pressure-resistant, shockproof and other materials, in packaging sector very broad application, whether it is food (solid and liquid), industrial products, grocery goods, chemicals, stationery and so on can be used. Application of more current plastic packaging materials are: polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, poly-stuffed, nylon, acetate, a vinyl acetate copolymer too. Plastic products in the form of film, fiber and molding a rigid material. Wherein the film can be made into all kinds of plastic bags, the fibers can be woven into bags or larger bags, rigid molding material can be made into a variety of plastic barrels, plastic bottles, plastic box, turnover box, plastic box and so on.
Status of recycling plastic packaging waste each year for packaging of plastic products of about 300 million, but the recovery of plastic each year only about 10%, and only some of rigid plastic containers for recycling. In this situation the state has taken the appropriate measures in the next five years, will invest 50 billion yuan were solid waste treatment to save the child control city of 1.8 million tons of harmful chemical treatment utilization up to 45%. currently, the state invested 10 million yuan in Anhui Province has built the largest waste plastics recycling resource base, other provinces and cities have also been some recycling centers, recycling of plastic waste each year up to billion yuan output value.
Environmental management standards, in order to strengthen global environmental awareness
Germany is the most developed country's current attention to environmental protection and recycling of packaging waste, packaging and packaging waste a decree promulgating pointed out: its goal is the management of packaging material can be recycled and the need to reduce packaging waste. This is the world's first law on packaging waste handling. Japan developed a plastic waste recycling targets to increase recycling of plastic waste, while taking advantage of the separation of plastics from garbage mechanical system that can effectively PE films and bags separated for processing. EC plans before 2005 waste recovery rate of 90%.
Plastic waste recycling technology plastics packaging waste recycling technologies can be divided into recycling technology, incineration technology Being able to assert or regain landfill technology and three materials: recycling is one of the most actively promoting material again the method of recycling is to conserve resources, protect the ecological environment of effective recycling methods. This method can be divided into recycled reuse, recycling mechanical treatment, chemical treatment, recycling and utilization of the three methods.
Recycle and reuse process means no processed, but directly after cleaning by re-using. This method is mainly targeted at some hard, smooth, clean, washable large containers, such as pallets, boxes, big boxes, and large capacity bottles, barrels containing liquid and the like. These containers through treatment, health inspection qualified before use.
First, their classification and selection, in line with the basic requirements and then washed with water 4 caustic acid 4 4 4 water disinfection 4 sodium bisulfite water soak 4 dried and then distilled water 50.
Mechanical treatment including recycling directly modified regeneration two categories
Mainly refers to the direct recycling of waste plastics, after directly after the pre-processing plastics broken, and then molding and granulation.
Direct regeneration according to its sources and uses of waste plastic can be divided into three types:
1. Do not need sorting, washing and other pre-processing, plastics molding directly crushed
This method is mainly used for packaging products, production process scrap and defective, they can be fed directly into the hopper with the new material simultaneously, without any pre-treatment; can also be used despite the use of, but very clean, no pollution plastic containers.
2. To go through separation, dried, crushed pre-treatment
Especially polluting products, first coarse wash to remove sand, stones, gold and other impurities, to prevent damage to the machine; then centrifugally extracted and sent to a crusher, then sperm washing to remove impurities inside the package. Washed, dried, or granulated plastics molding directly. Its object is generally to various uses and shapes of containers, pockets, and other films.
3. To specially pretreated
Such as PS foams, bulky and difficult to input processing machinery, so to advance degassed volume reduction process. Because different types of products with different bubble machine.
Publishing and Printing modified object reuse sling to mention the basic mechanical properties of recycled materials to meet the special regenerative braking quality children's needs.
Modification method divided into three categories
1. Physical modification
Through mixing process can usually be filled with modified activated inorganic particles toughening of waste plastics, reinforced modified waste plastics, recycled plastic alloying process of composite materials and multi-copolymers;
2. Chemically modified
I.e., the molecular structure changes, the change in the material properties, to obtain a more excellent specific properties by chemical crosslinking, graft, block and other means to make it. Chemically modified in many ways, but the most essential is to be in the old play macromolecular chains or chain between chemical reaction, that is to rely on the molecular chain or side chain reactive groups reacted again, or chain connected to some kind of group or connected to a characteristic feature branched or between macromolecular chain reactive groups to form a crosslinked structure, with the result that the old structure degeneration sling molecules, resulting in improved performance and lift sling;
3. Physical chemical modification
Its processes and is characterized by a specific extruder, the material of the various components during physical blending modification, while chemical graft modification; both modified after completion of further strengthening co mixed, then granulated or molded directly at a specific temperature. This is a set of grafting, crosslinking, blending into one integrated system, its advantages both time and shorten the production cycle modification process so that continuous production, but also more effective modification effect.
Chemical treatment recycling, waste plastic packaging is the action through pyrolysis or chemical decomposition of the product of monomer in terms of quality with the new material is basically the same, you can use the same with the new material, the formation of renewable resources, natural resources use really form a closed circle, to achieve pollution control purposes.
Incineration is one of the easiest and most convenient disposal of waste plastic and waste methods. It is not for recovering mixed plastics and other refuse as a fuel mixture, which was placed in the incinerator incineration, and take advantage of the heat produced by the combustion. The most important feature of this method is that the substance has been identified as the conversion of waste to become energy. Children up to its heating 5234-6987 kJ / ton, fuel oil and other heat substantially the same as far sling on paper, wood burning class, but also has a significant volume reduction effect. Its quality is set to be reduced by about 85% by volume can be reduced by 95%. Residues after combustion flooded small size, high density, small area when landfill is also very convenient, but also stable and easy to disintegration in the soil.
Incineration process is very simple, no pre-treatment of waste to be transported directly into the furnace, saving energy and human resources to obtain the value of the sling, to effectively protect the ecological environment.
Landfill is one of the most negative and simple method for processing waste plastic, plastic is waste landfill in suburban wasteland or concave ground, it exploded. But even ordinary plastic have been 200 to 400 years before they decompose to disappear, so that this method is the least desirable approach. Plastic waste is landfilled not seen the sun, not the storm, isolated from the air, difficult to weathering; soil retention would undermine the permeability of the soil, reduce water storage capacity of the soil, crops affect the absorption of moisture, nutrients, leading to crop failures. And accumulated more seriously impede groundwater flow and leakage. Also in the organic component of waste plastics in the landfill process, due to the anaerobic environment produces methane and other harmful gases, air pollution, and even cause an explosion. Some plastics chemical reaction occurs in a variety of other effects due to cable and other waste and rain erosion, the pollution of groundwater sources.
Although the landfill approach is a last resort, but there is a certain role. Because this approach does not need equipment, do not invest, the method is relatively simple. And after the waste buried in the short term it will not constitute a hazard to the surface of plants, while the suspension of the state of contamination. But this method with the development of technology and economic development will gradually be eliminated.
In summary, compared with developed countries, China's annual amount of waste packaging generated by large, and the recovery rate is relatively low, far less recovery efforts abroad. Under the impact of the green revolution, China's relevant departments to waste recycling have been given the importance of the sling. With advances in technology, waste recycling rate has been greatly enhanced in the sling. Active in packaging waste recycling process should be based on recycling as a means to replace the green packaging materials as a supplementary measure, moderation in the pursuit of product packaging on the basis of the Board seeks to reduce, to control pollution from the source. In packaging design, we should vigorously promote environmentally friendly guidelines, a really good job of environmental protection. Click www.nblinhua.com to know more information.